Air & Environment Management
Air in the atmosphere is a reserve of oxygen and carbon dioxide without which survival of plants and animals are not possible. The other gases in the atmosphere perform vital functions that maintain living environment in balance.
Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air.
Among these sources, exhaust from industries remains a major concern. The U.S., with over 8,000 power plants out of more than 50,000 worldwide, accounts for about 25 percent of that total or 2.8 billion tons. Cement industry contributes about 5% of global carbon dioxide emissions, emitting nearly 900kg of CO2 for every 1000kg of cement produced. Petrochemical industry accounts for about 16% CO2 emissions.
Air pollution from these industries and other stationary sources emits huge amounts of green house gases which cause serious complications of global warming. This results in climate change. Climate change will have a significant impact in many areas. So air and environment management is the need of the hour.
To overcome these, emission standards are set which specify limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. Many emissions standards focus on regulating pollutants released by automobiles (motor cars) and other powered vehicles but they can also regulate emissions from industry, power plants, small equipment such as lawn mowers and diesel generators.
Indoor air quality management
Indoor air quality is a major concern to businesses, building managers, tenants, and employees because it can impact the health, comfort, well being, and productivity of building occupants.
Most Americans spend up to 90% of their time indoors and many spend most of their working hours in an office environment. Studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and others show that indoor environments sometimes can have levels of pollutants that are actually higher than levels found outside.
Pollutants in our indoor environment can increase the risk of illness. Several studies by EPA, states, and independent scientific panels have consistently ranked indoor air pollution as an important environmental health problem. While most buildings do not have severe indoor air quality problems, even well-run buildings can sometimes experience episodes of poor indoor air quality.
Poor indoor air may cost the nation tens of billions of dollars each year in lost productivity and medical care.Air pollution monitoring, prevention and control
- The total global air pollution mitigation market was worth $59.3 billion in 2006 and will reach $83.5 billion in 2007. By 2012, the global market will be worth over $138 billion, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.6%.
- Air pollution prevention was by far the largest market sector throughout the forecast period. In 2007 the market will be worth almost $46 billion and will reach $75.9 billion by the end of 2012, a CAGR of 10.6%.
- Air pollution control will be the fastest growing market throughout the forecast period. At a CAGR of 13.9% its value will reach $36.2 billion by 2012.
Air pollution monitoring market
With the decision of the US Environmental Protection Agency to reclassify carbon dioxide - CO2 - as an air pollutant, air pollution monitoring market gains significance.
- The biggest market increase will be in ambient measurement;
- The Middle East is expected to see an increase in the air pollution market, due to investments in petrochemical plants, air pollution monitoring and process analysers; Power is the largest market for air pollution monitoring;
- The waste-to-energy market is second largest, and growing globally - although the US is significantly behind the US and Asia in developing this industry.
- The hardware revenues for the air monitoring industry will be substantially less than those generated by analysis and testing.
The world market for stack continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) will be $900 million in 2011. However, if one takes into account the additional revenues for ambient monitoring systems, intermittent stack sampling and process control using pollutant analyzers, the market is above $3 billion. This is the latest forecast in the McIlvaine Air Pollution Monitoring and Sampling World Markets.
Air pollution control for Coal-Fired power plants
- The U.S. market for air pollution control technologies for coalfired power plants was worth $2.5 billion in 2008. This is expected to increase to $2.7 billion in 2013, for a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.5%.
- Scrubbers and FGD technologies generated $1.3 billion in 2008. This segment should increase slightly by the end of 2013, for a CAGR of 1.5%.
- Nitrogen oxide control technologies were worth $925.0 million in 2008. This should increase at a CAGR of 1.5% to reach $997.0 million in 2013.
Market for Air pollution control products
Just under $42 billion will be invested in equipment to reduce air pollution next year, and 55 percent of that investment will be in Asia, according to a forecast in the McIlvaine Air Pollution Management report.
The expansion of basic industries such as mining, chemical, steel, and refining in Asia will result in major purchases of fabric filters, scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and continuous emissions monitors (CEMS). The expansion of general manufacturing will result in additional investments in thermal oxidizers and adsorbers.
Leading suppliers of equipment and technology are:
Electrostatic precipitators: China, U.S. (but with European headquarters in one case)
FGD systems: Japan, U.S.
Fabric filters: U.S, Europe
Nitrogen-Oxide Control Catalysts: Japan, U.S.
Scrubbers, adsorbers, biofilters (Many small manufacturers throughout the world)
Thermal & Catalytic Oxidizers: U.S., Europe
Glimpse of the type of business opportunities
- Undertaking forestry projects and/or soil and land conservation projects that lock up CO2 in a natural process is known as sequestration. CO2 sequestration provides excellent opportunities for the industries emitting large amounts of CO2. Sequestering CO2 provides the benefit of monetizing the carbon credits. Opportunities exist for companies that provide services for the construction, operation and management of the process.
Projects that tie up CO2 in “carbon sinks” or that lead to cleaner energy create emissions credits for companies. These credits can be used to offset some of their CO2 emissions, or they can be sold to other companies that cannot meet their emissions-reduction targets.
- Excellent opportunities exist for the companies that supply air pollution monitoring and control systems, equipment, and services for stationary sources.
The air pollution control equipment (APCE) market exhibited steady growth in 2007 and 2008. This industry is regulation driven and is expected to record growth from 2012 onwards. The APCE market in Asia-Pacific generated revenue of $3.2 Billion in 2009 and is expected to reach $4.6 Billion in 2020, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.6% over the forecast period. The Asia–Pacific market is expected to gradually supersede the North American market, with huge coal-fired capacity by 2020. In recent years, Chinese Air Pollution Control (APC) equipment suppliers have taken an active interest in overseas and local markets. Chinese products are priced at a relatively low-price, almost 15 - 20% less than the average global price of APC equipments. Air pollution control market in India is about US$ 0.4 billion and is growing at 15% annually.
Air pollution control market for coal fired power plants
Regulations for the control of pollutants such as mercury are currently being formulated. This calls for technology advancement and the integration of new technology into the existing infrastructure and subsequently results in market growth with the rise in demand.
- Climate change consulting is also one exciting business opportunity. Today’s climate change consulting market at $1.9 billion worldwide and $670 million in the United States. These figures are expected to more than double in the next five years.
- Emission control catalysts play a major role in controlling the emissions from automobiles. The global market for emission control catalysts is forecast to exceed US$7.0 billion by the year 2015, according to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts (GIA), Inc.
Air quality – market based incentives
Market-based mechanisms for reducing pollution include a variety of economic or market-oriented incentives and disincentives, such as tax credits, emissions fees, or tradeable emissions limitations (emissions trading for short). There are many types of emissions trading approaches; the one used by EPA's Clean Air Market Programs is called "allowance trading" or "cap and trade" and has the following key features:
- Emissions cap: a limit on the total amount of pollution that can be emitted (released) from all regulated sources (e.g., power plants); the cap is set lower than historical emissions to cause reductions in emissions.
- Allowances: an allowance is an authorization to emit a fixed amount of a pollutant.
- Measurement: accurate tracking of all emissions.
- Flexibility: sources can choose how to reduce emissions, including whether to buy additional allowances from other sources that reduce emissions.
- Allowance trading: sources can buy or sell allowances on the open market.
- Compliance: at the end of each compliance period, each source must own at least as many allowances as its emissions.
In the next years more widespread and effective use of incentives will be used to influence behavior and reduce pollution-causing practices. Regulatory requirements themselves create a powerful market incentive to find cheaper and better control techniques. Market-based incentives will increasingly be used in combination with regulation (for example, trading and banking programs) to give facilities an extra incentive to undertake reductions beyond those required by regulation, often at a lower cost.
Specific examples in the market-based incentives program include the U.S. SO2 Allowance Trading Program (also known as the Acid Rain Program), the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) in Southern California, and the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) Regional NOx Trading Program in the Northeastern United States.
- Clean Technology Verticals
- Energy Generation
- Solar Energy
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- Hydro Energy
- Bio-based Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Ocean Energy
- Hydrogen Energy
- Waste to Energy
- Clean Coal
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- Nuclear Energy
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- Energy Efficiency
- Energy Infrastructure and Carriers
- Energy Storage
- Water and Waste water Management
- Sustainable Materials
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